Posts made in January, 2015

Budi Gunawan and Hoegeng Iman Santoso

Posted by on Jan 17, 2015 in Uncategorized | 0 comments

Budi Gunawan and Hoegeng Iman Santoso

Considering the current controversy regarding Indonesian President Joko Widodo’s nomination of Commissioner General Budi Gunawan (an officer under investigation by the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) for his large bank accounts) to become National Police Chief, it is useful to review the record of one of Indonesia’s more principled police chiefs, Hoegeng Iman Santoso. Hoegeng’s job was made more challenging due to his tenure under former President Soeharto. As Acting President, Soeharto had hoped Sukarnoist Police Commander Sutjipto Judodihardjo, Navy Commander Vice Admiral Moeljadi, and Marine Commander Major General Hartono might be ousted by their own subordinates, but ultimately was forced to intervene. Soeharto’s men pressured Sutjipto to carry out a limited purge of the police in mid-1966; two senior officers and 711 mostly low-ranking police members were dismissed. The police purge accelerated after Sukarno’s dismissal a year later. Sutjipto was replaced in May 1968 by his first deputy, Commissioner General Hoegeng Iman Santoso, a principled PSI-leaning officer who continued the purge. There had been a longstanding rivalry between the Army and police dating to the colonial period. The public had little confidence in the underpaid and notoriously corrupt police force. The Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI) had become the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia, ABRI) during 1962 when the police were reclassified as an armed force. In conjunction with the 1969-1970 ABRI reorganization, Soeharto finished integrating the police into the Armed Forces. As National Police Chief, Hoegeng accepted the merger, but insisted the national police should continue as a civilian law enforcement agency. Santoso developed a reputation for honesty and fairness. In addition to purging the police ranks, he stubbornly refused to compromise his principles during his three year term as national police chief from 1968 to 1971. In 1970, after learning Jakarta Police Chief Major General Subroto had arrested prominent lawyer and government critic Yap Thiam Hien on orders from Defense and Security Minister/Kopkamtib Commander General Maraden Panggabean, Hoegeng ordered Yap released. Hoegeng again angered Soeharto and his men when he instructed subordinates to ensure no intimidation took place during the 1971 election campaign. Later the same year, he refused Soeharto’s request to drop charges against a smuggler the police had arrested. Smuggling persisted during the New Order but shifted from the traditional clandestine nighttime activities on remote beaches to the nation’s major ports under the control of customs officials and senior officers. In September 1971, Hoegeng announced his men had broken up a smuggling ring involving senior army officers who had illegally imported hundreds of luxury cars through Jakarta’s Tanjung Priok Port. The smuggling operation was run by Indonesian-Chinese entrepreneur, Robby Tjahjadi, and involved senior army officers and Soeharto family members. Hoegeng was said to have embarrassed the President by confronting him with photographs of Ibu Tien with Tjahjadi.[1] On the President’s orders, General Panggabean dismissed Hoegeng on October 2, replacing him with an older, more pliable police officer, Mohamad Hasan, who had been responsible for managing police officers assigned to civilian posts.[2] Hoegeng turned down an ambassadorial post and went quietly into retirement. The “modest and unassuming...

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Golkar

Posted by on Jan 8, 2015 in Uncategorized | 0 comments

General Soeharto was president but no political party truly represented military interests. He considered an alliance with the retooled Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI) or establishing a new party, before submitting to Brigadier General Ali Moertopo’s concept to transform the Army-run Joint Functional Groups Secretariat (Sekber Golkar) into a “non-party” staffed by serving military officers and partnered with the army territorial structure across the archipelago. The Army had created Sekber Golkar in October 1964 as an anti-communist umbrella organization to manage the more than 250 nationalist and anti-communist army-backed cooperation bodies, or functional groups, throughout Indonesian society. Sekber Golkar (formally shortened to Golkar after the 1971 elections) had no real purpose after the communist purge. Ali Moertopo tasked Army Assistant for Functional Affairs Brigadier General Darjatmo and his deputy, Colonel Amir Murtono, to simplify the Sekber Golkar organization and restructure it into as a pseudo-government party. In November 1969, they divided the organization into seven Kino (Kelompok Induk Organisasi, Organizational Core Groups) aimed at competing in the elections. Military officers headed six of the seven Kino. Moertopo loyalist Major General Suprapto Sokowati assumed duties as Golkar General Chairman. Colonel Amir Murtono, an officer close to Kopkamtib Commander General Soemitro, had played a central role in the reorganization and took over as general chairman when Suprapto Sokowati suffered a heart attack and died after the 1973 presidential election. Murtono held the top Golkar post for more than a decade and was promoted to major general in that capacity.[1] Golkar was meant to convey the impression it served national rather than parochial interests. It attracted support from conservative political elements, in particular Harry Tjan Silalahi’s Catholic Party and former officials from the defunct Indonesian Socialist Party (PSI). Harry Tjan and Ali Moertopo developed a master plan to empower Golkar and handicap the parties. Technically Golkar was not a party and was not subject to the restrictions on political parties. Soeharto appointed Jakarta Commander Major General “Bulldozer” Amirmachmud as Home Affairs Minister in January 1969, replacing Major General Basuki Rachmat who died from a heart attack on January 8. Soeharto posthumously promoted Basuki to full general and presided over his burial in the Kalibata Heroes Cemetery. Working closely with Ali Moertopo and picking up where fellow Supersemar architect Basuki Rachmat left off, Amirmachmud introduced regulations in December 1969 stipulating civil servants could not belong to any political party and were bound by “mono-loyalty” to the government. Having grown from 250,000 in 1950 to 2.5 million in 1968, the civil service constituted a deep ocean of patronage. Government employees accounted for over one-quarter of the labor force in some towns. Over 23,000 civil servants and an additional 10,000 state corporation workers had been dismissed for leftist political affiliations between 1965 and 1967.[2] The mono-loyalty policy broke up traditional party influence in the civil service and was especially damaging to the PNI. Military members and Defense Ministry employees were also prohibited from party membership. Service members had been allowed to vote during the 1955 elections but that right was withheld throughout the New Order based on the military representation in Parliament and the MPR. Military leaders...

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